Formulation and evaluation of Ayurvedic face wash
Amit Ingle
Bajiraoji Karanjekar College of Pharmacy,
CARE Ratings LtdSakoli, Maharashtra, India
Mayuri B. Meshram
Bajiraoji Karanjekar College of Pharmacy,
Sakoli, Maharashtra, India


Acne vulgaris is an extremely common disorder of skin[pilocebaceous unit] that affects virtually all individuals at least once during life.

1. Introduction
Acne vulgaris is an extremely common disorder of skin [pilocebaceous unit] that affects virtually all individuals at least once during life. The incidence of acne peaks at teenage, but substantial numbers of men and women between 20-30 years of age are also affected by the disorder.[1]

Acne may be classified as comedonal, popular, pustular, cystic & nodular. Comedonal acne is non- inflammatory & divided into two types: whiteheads & blackheads. White heads (closed comedo) present as fresh or white coloured, raised bumps whereas blackhead (open comedo) present as open pores containing dark coloured skin roughage consisting of melanin, sebum & follicular cells. Papules appear as red, solid, elevated lesions often less than 5mm in diameter. Puastules are circumscribed skin elevations containing purulent material. Cysts & nodules are solid, elevated lesions involving deeper dermal & subcutaneous tissue. Cysts are less than 5 mm in diameter whereas nodules exceed 5mm.

The pathogenesis of acne involves multiple physiological factors. These include 1). Follicular hyper- proliferation, 2). Increased sebum production due to higher androgen levels & colonization of organism, 3). Propionibacterium acnes & staphylococcus epidermidis.[4] Novel concept have emerged to help better understand its pathogenesis, these includes variation in target cell sensitivity, biological markers, neuro-endocrine, genetic, & environmental factors. Plenty of herbal as well as synthetic ingredients are reported to have remarkable beneficial effect on acne vulgaris.[3-5] They may have different mechanism like,

a) Control sebum secretion.
b) Antibiotics which inhibits Propionoibacterium acne & Staphylococcus epidermidis, the main causative organism of acne.
c) Keratolytic which removes the keratin layer & prevents the trapping of sebum under the skin.
d) Anti-inflammatory which prevents the worsening of condition due to inflammation or redness etc.

Numbers of formulations are available in the market with variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients for the treatment of acne. Topical formulations, available in the market are as follows: Gel, Cream, Lotion, Face wash or cleanser, Face pack or mask. Neem(Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), turmeric (Curcuma longa) & nutmeg (Myristica fragrance, Myristic aceae) are reported to have very beneficial effect on acne due to anti-microbial, anti- inflammatory & antioxidant activities of different chemical constituents.
Face skin is the major part of the body, which indicates the health of an individual. It is a consist of materials such as amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates etc so that a balanced nutrition is required for the skin to keep it clear glossy and healthy, it deals with the formulation and characterization of cosmetic herbal face wash preparation. In ancient times women are very conscious about their beauty and started to dress themselves because they wanted to increase their own beauty.[6] Even today, people especially in rural areas, and hilly region select the natural remedies like plants extracts for cosmetics perposous like neem, orange rose . Herbal cosmetics are products which are used to purify and beautify the skin. The main advantage for using an herbal cosmetic is that it is pure and does not have any side effects on the human body men have rough skin and when they don't take sufficient care then the skin turns dark due to over exposure of the sun.[2] In this article we share home best homemade face packs and face mask to whiten the skin naturally for men’s and women skin. These face packs have natural skin lightening and can be easily prepared at home.[7]





Facial skin is delicate and ordinary soaps can cause to lose moisture. A face wash is a mild cleanser that does the vital job of keeping skin clean, germ free smooth, and fresh and moisturizes the horny layer without any harshness to the skin look younger and energetic. The purpose of face-wash may be to impart cleansing, antiwrinkle effect,
Anticancer property, moisturizing effect and fairness of skin.[8]

2. Experimental work
2.1 Methods
2.1.1 Collection
Leaves of neem were collected from the local areaof Sakoli. Fruits of Nutmeg , orange peel, liquorice root, turmeric root, rosewater were collected from the local market of Sakoli.
2.1.2 Preparation of extracts
Leaves of neem, roots of liquorice, rhizomes of turmeric, orange peel, were kept in hot air oven for draying purpose at 45 c and grinded into small pieces by using grinder. Seeds of nutmeg and shahijeera (Cumin) were crushed to make powder. Desired quantities of herbal drugs were weighed and each herb macerated with rose water in conical flask. Dried herbs were allowed to mix with rose water by moderate shaking of conical flask for 3 days. Separately After 3 days, contents were filtered out by using simple filtration method and filtrates were collected in vessels separately.[13]
2.1.3 Filtration
Filtration of extract was done by using simple filter muclin cloth and funnel for two times.
2.1.4 Evaporation
Evaporation was done by using water bath. Filtrates were allowed to evaporate in water bath at 60°C temperature until the desired concentration of the extract was obtained.


2.1.5 Development of Formulation
Various formulation batches were prepared according to the Table 2. The desired concentration of gelling agent i.e. xanthium gum was weighed accurately and dispersed in hot rose water (not more than 60°C; 50 % weight of the batch size) with moderate stirring, avoiding air entrapment and allowed to soak overnight. Desired quantity of lemon juice was dissolved in desired amount of honey by gentle stirring.
Desired quantity of concentrated herbal extracts were added to the remaining amount of rose water and mixed with above honey mixture by gentle stirring. This was finally mixed with previously soaked gel formulation. Prepared formulations were filled in a suitable container and labeled accordingly.

2.2 Comparative evaluation of formulation
The prepared face wash was evaluated forvarious parameters as follows [9] .
2.2.1 Physical evaluation
Physical parameters such as colour, appearance & consistency were checked visually.
2.2.1.1 Washability
Formulations were applied on the skin then easily remove by washing with water were checked manually.[10]
2.2.1.2 Colour
The colour of the face wash was checked visually [10].
2.2.1.3 pH
pH of 1% aqueous solution of the formulation was measured by using a calibrated digital pH meter at constant temperature[12]
2.2.1.4 Viscosity
The viscosity of face wash was determined by using Brookfield Viscometer. The Values Obtained for sample is noted.
2.2.1.5 Spreadability
Spreadability denotes the extent of area to which the gel readily spread on application to skin or the affected part. The bioavailability efficiency of a gel formulation also depends on its spreading value [13]. The spreadability is expressed in terms of time in seconds taken by two slides to slip off from the gel, placed in between the slides, under certain load. Lesser the time taken for separation of two slides, better the spreadability . Two sets of glass slides of standard dimensions were taken. The herbal gel formulation was placed over one of the slides. The other slide was placed on the top of the gel, such that the gel was sandwich between the two slides in an area occupied by a distance of 6 cm along the slide. 100gm weight was placed upon the upper slide so that the gel between the two slides was pressed uniformly to from a thin layer. The weight was removed & the excess of the gel adhering to the slides was scrapped off. The two slides in position were fixed to stand without slightest disturbance & in such a way that only the upper slide to slip off freely by the force of weight tied to it. A 20gm weight was tied to the upper slide carefully. The time taken for the upper slide to travel the distance of 6 cm7 separated away from the lower slide under the influence of the weight was noted. The experiment was repeated three times both formulated gels & marketed gel & the meantime taken for calculation [13].
Spreadability was calculated by using the following formula,

S=M×L/T
S- Spreadability
M- Weight tied to the upper slide
L- Length of the glass
T- Time in sec.
2.3 Irritancy test
The face wash was applied on left hand dorsal surface of 1 sq. cm and observed in time interval 1 to 2 hrs.[15]

3. Result and discussion
The results of evaluation are displayed in Table 3. Formulation was orange in color, whereas, marketed formulation was green in color. Formulation was found to have semisolid consistency. The formulations were found homogenous, easily washable. The formulated face wash has slightly alkaline pH which is compatible with normal physiology.

4. Conclusion
Natural remedies are more acceptable in the belief that they are safer with fewer side effects than the synthetic ones. Herbal formulations have growing demand in the world market. It is a very good attempt to establish the herbal face wash containing aqueous extracts of neem leaves, turmeric rhizomes, liquorice root, and seed of nutmeg. This study revealed that the developed herbal formulation of batch f1 was comparatively better than other formulation.

The herbal face wash is one of the most well recognized acne treatments, herbal face wash not only moisturized, they also used as a cleanser. Preferably they used for oily and dry skin physiology. It provides numerous essential nutrients to the required for maintaining the normal skin functioning. it also promotes the natural glow to the skin. The herbal face wash was prepared from various herbs like Neem, Turmeric, Nutmeg, Liquorice, Honey, and the soothing agent as Xanthungum used for formulation. It gives beneficial effects to the face. The various parameters like colour, pH, consistency, washability, irritability and spreadability was checked and evaluated hence, from the present investigation it was found that the formulated herbal face wash was found to be more efficient as compared to the marketed face wash.

At this formulation contains all herbal ingredients its nighters produce any harmful action on skin and are reliable.

References
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2. Ashawat MS, Banchhor M. Herbal Cosmetics. Trends in skin care formulation . Pharmacognosy Rev 2009; 3(5): 82-89.
3. Singh H.P., Samnhotra N., Gullaiya S., Kaur I. Anti- acne synergistic Herbal face wash gel Formulation, Evaluation, & Stability study, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 4(9):1261-1273.
4. Kanlayavattanakul M., Lourith N., Therapeutic agents & herbs in topical applications for acne treatment, International Journal of cosmetic Science, 2011; 33: 289-297.
5. Kapoor V.P., Joshi H., Chaubey M., Applications of seed gums in pharmaceutical formulations, J Med Arom Plant Sci. 2000; 22/4A & 23/1A: 42 -44.
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7. Sowmya K.V., Darshika C.X., Grace F., Shanmuganathan S. Formulation and evaluation of Poly-herbal Face wash gel, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; 4(6): 585-588.
8. Kanlayavattanakul M., Lourith N. Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical applications for acne treatment. International Journal of cosmetics Science, 2011; 33: 289-297.
9. Mitusi T. New Cosmectic Science; Elsevier Science B.V., the Netherlands ;1sted; 148-149 Indian standard -6608- 1978; Govt of India 1997: 4-5
10. Baby, A. R., Zague, V., Maciel, C.P.M., Kaneko, T. M., Consiglieri, V. O ., Velasco and M. V. R. Development of Cosmetics Mask Formulations. Rev Bras Cienc. Farm 2004; 40(10):159-161.
11. Ahmed, S.A. and M. Grainage, Use of indigenous plant resources in rural development, potential of neem tree. Int. J. Dev. Technol., 1985; 3: 123-130 .
12. Quddus, M. A., The cropland agroforestry experiences of the village and farm forestry project in Northwest Bangladesh. National Workshop, September 16-17, 2001 Gazipur, Bangladesh, 2001: 229-239.